What is Prostate-Specific Antigen?

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) is a protein that's made by the prostate, a small gland that produces semen in men. PSA helps keep the semen in a liquid state, which helps sperm move.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic

Why is it included in Hormone+?

SiPhox Health includes PSA in the male Hormone+ panel because of its significance as a marker for prostate health.

According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer will occur in 1 in 8 men during their lifetime and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men after lung cancer in the U.S. Because PSA is secreted by the prostate, elevated PSA levels may be indicative of an enlarged prostate gland caused by cancer.

Measuring and analyzing PSA levels can lead to a variety of helpful checks, such as:

  1. Prostate Health: A PSA test is often used to check for problems with the prostate. Measuring PSA levels is critical to understanding inflammation and other diseases in the prostate, including cancer.

  2. Checking Cancer Treatment: If you've been treated for prostate cancer, your doctor might use the PSA test to see if the treatment is working or if the cancer has come back.

How can I better understand my results?

PSA levels vary by age, and the Cleveland Clinic has released reference ranges accordingly:

Age Normal level (ng/mL) Abnormal level (ng/mL)
40 - 50 0 - 2.5 > 2.5
50 - 60 2.5 - 3.5 > 3.5
60 - 70 3.5 - 4.5 > 4.5
70 - 80 4.5 - 5.5 > 5.5


According to the American Cancer Society, a PSA between 4 and 10 ng/mL is equivalent to a 25% chance of having prostate cancer, while a PSA over 10 ng/mL increases the likelihood to over 50%. Some factors, such as certain medications and even obesity, may lower PSA and make this test a misleading representation of your actual cancer risk. If you are concerned with your results, please consult with your physician to seek treatment.

It is important to note that not everyone with a high PSA has prostate cancer, and even people with low PSA can have prostate cancer. PSA is simply a commonly used metric that may indicate the need for further testing.

If your PSA levels are elevated, try incorporating some of these lifestyle changes to lower your PSA levels and maintain a healthy prostate:

Where can I learn more?

Mayo Clinic - PSA Test

Cleveland Clinic (video) - What Is A Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Test?