What is apoB?
apoB is a protein carrier for LDL. There is exactly one apoB per LDL particle. apoB is also found in VLDL, IDL, and Lp(a).
Why is it included in the Cardiovascular Axis?
Because there is only one apoB per LDL, this measurement gives us the most accurate estimate of the LDL or “bad cholesterol” in the body. apoB is a measure of non-HDL cholesterol relative to total cholesterol. High apoB levels are strongly associated with an increase in risk for cardiovascular events. 
How can I better understand my results?
- Optimal: <90 mg/dL
- In Range: 90-119 mg/dL
- High: 120-140 mg/dL
Where can I learn more?
Peter Attia, M.D. is a huge advocate for the testing of apoB. As such, he has a wealth of content exploring the concept.
Thomas Dayspring, M.D., a leader in the field of lipidology, and Peter Attia, M.D. have a long-form podcast series about all things lipids and apoB.
A notable study from The Lancet exploring apoB measurement and lifespan